The forest of Tierra del Fuego is the closest forest to Antarctica, hence the name of “Subantarctic”. Out of the three species that mainly form the forest, two are deciduous: lenga (Nothofagus pumilio) and ñire or beech(N. antarctica) and one is evergreen: the guindo (N. betuloides). Besides these three, there are other tree species which are much less abundant: canelo or Winter´s bark (Drymis winteri), notro or firebush (Embothrium coccineum) and maitén or pickwood (Maytenus magellanica). The species mostly used in the timber industry is the lenga. One of the most amazing features of the beech tree is its capacity to grow under extremely severe conditions, such as a thin layer of soil that sometimes does not surpass 10 cm ; steep slopes; wind exposure (sometimes winds over 100 km/h); an annual mean temperature of 5ºC and rainfall varying from 300 to 5,000 mm (in southwest Chile). The beech tree is the support of thousands of living things forming this peculiar ecosystem. All over the province of Tierra del Fuego, which includes Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands, there is a large variety of bird species. Some of the most representative ones are: penguins, albatrosses, petrels, sea gulls, terns, shags, oystercatchers, shorebirds, ducks, pintails, grebes, geese, ibis, vultures, condors, eagles, falcons and a large number of lesser birds, each one in its habitat, making up a list of about 200 species
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